第一章 绪论 （2学时）
第三章 抗体 （4学时）
第四章 补体系统 （3学时）
第五章 免疫系统 （6学时）
第八章 免疫应答 （2学时）
第十章 感染免疫与疫苗 （3学时）
第十一章 超敏反应 （3学时）
SYLLABUS of IMMUNOLOGY
COURSE CLASSIFICATION：OPTIONAL COURSE
SPECIALTY：BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOENGINEERING
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW
Immunology deals with understanding how the body distinguishes between what is "self" and what is "nonself"; all the rest is technical detail.
The nature of these primitive recognition mechanisms has not been completely worked out, but almost certainly involves cell surface molecules that are able to specifically bind and adhere to other molecules on opposing cell surfaces. This simple method of molecular recognition has evolved over time into the very complex system of the immune response, which, however, still retains as its essential feature the ability of a protein molecule to recognize and bind specifically to a particular shaped structure on another molecule. Such molecular recognition is the underlying principle involved in the discrimination between "self" and "nonself" by the immune response.
CHAPTER 2 ELEMENTS OF INNATE AND ACQUIRED IMMUNITY
Every living organism is confronted by continual intrusions from its environment. To survive, every organism has therefore had to develop defenses that render it resistant, or immune, to such assaults. These defenses range from physical barriers, such as a cell wall, to highly sophisticated systems, such as the acquired immune response. This chapter describes the defense systems: the elements that constitute the defense, the participating cells and organs, and the action of the participants in the immune response to foreign substances that invade the body.
CHAPER 3 IMMUNOGENS AND ANTIGENS
Acquired immune responses arise as a result of exposure to foreign stimuli. The compound that evokes the response is referred to either as "antigen" or as "immunogen." The distinction between these terms is functional. An immunogen is any agent capable of inducing an immune response. In contrast, an antigen is any agent capable of binding specifically to components of the immune response, such as lymphocytes and antibodies. The distinction between the terms is necessary because there are many compounds that are incapable of inducing an immune response, yet they are capable of binding with components of the immune system that have been induced specifically against them. Thus, all immunogens are antigens, but not all antigens need be immunogens. This difference becomes obvious in the case of low-molecular-weight compounds, a group of substances that includes many antibiotics and drugs.
CHAPTER 4 ANTIBODY STRUCTURE
One of the major functions of the immune system is the production of soluble proteins that circulate freely and exhibit properties that contribute specifically to immunity and protection against foreign material. These soluble proteins are the antibodies, which belong to the class of proteins called globulins because of their globular structure. Initially, owing to their migratory properties in an electrophoretic field, they were called γ-globulins (in relation to the more rapidly migrating albumin, α-globulin, and β-globulin); Today, they are known collectively as immunoglobulins (Ig).
CHAPTER 5 BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF IMMUNOGLOBULINS
Many important biological functions are attributed to antibodies. These include neutralization of toxins, immobilization of microorganisms, neutralization of viral activity, agglutination (clumping together) of microorganisms or of antigenic particles, binding with soluble antigen leading to the formation of precipitates (which are readily phagocytized and destroyed by phagocytic cells), and activating serum complement to facilitate the lysis of microorganisms or their phagocytosis and destruction either by phagocytic cells or by killer lymphocytes. Still another important biological function of antibodies is their ability to cross the placenta from the mother to the fetus. Not all antibody isotypes are equal in the performance of all of these biological tasks. it is well established that the differences in the various biological activities of the antibodies are attributed to their isotypic (class) structure.
CHAPTER 6 THE GENETIC BASIS OF ANTIBODY STRUCTURE
One characteristic of the immune response is its enormous diversity. Estimates of the number of B and T cells with different antigenic specificities in a given individual range from 106 to 108. If every immunoglobulin (Ig) or T-cell receptor (TcR) were coded for by one gene, then an individual would have to have this same number of genes (106-10) devoted exclusively to coding for these structures. Since such a large number of genes would occupy a significant percentage of the individual's genome (inherited DNA), it seemed hard to understand how all these genes could be fitted in. As a result of the work of several investigators over the last twenty years, however, we now know that genes coding for Ig and TcR use a unique strategy to achieve the degree of diversity required. This strategy uses a much more limited set of genes, numbering in the thousands rather than millions.
CHAPTER 7 ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY INTERACTIONS
Antibodies constitute the humoral arm of acquired immunity that provides protection against infectious organisms and their toxic products. Therefore, the interaction between antigen and antibody is of paramount importance. In addition, because of the exquisite specificity of the immune response, the interaction between antigen and antibody in vitro is widely used for diagnostic purposes, for the detection and identification of either antigen or antibody. The utilization of the in vitro reaction between antigen and serum antibodies is termed serology. An example of the use of serology for the identification and classification of antigens is the serotyping of various microorganisms by the use of specific antisera.
CHAPTER 8 BIOLOGY OF THE B LYMPHOCYTE
In previous chapters we described the structural and genetic mechanisms by which the immune response is able to achieve its diversity (i.e., its ability to respond to many different antigenic determinants, or epitopes). We now consider the development of the cells responsible for several major characteristics of the immune response, which are:
CHAPTER 9 BIOLOGY OF THE T LYMPHOCYTE
In the preceding chapters we have described how the specificity of the immune response is derived from the presence of millions of different lymphocytes, each with a slightly different-receptor able to interact with a particular antigenic epitope. Thus far, we have focused on one set of lymphocytes, the B lymphocytes and their receptor for antigen, immunoglobulin.
CHAPTER 10 ACTIVATION OF T AND B CELLS BY ANTIGEN
The interaction of antigen with antigen-specific receptors on T and B cells initiates a cascade of events that results in the proliferation and differentiation of both sets of cells. The intracellular events that follow activation of the antigen-specific receptor by antigen are very similar in both B and T cells following receptor triggering at the cell surface. As a result of antigenic stimulation, both B and T cells differentiate into effector cells, and a small fraction of both populations becomes memory cells.
CHAPTER 11 CONTROL MECHANISMS IN THE IMMUNE RESPONSE INTRODUCTION
An understanding of the immune response as a complete physiologic system requires, in addition to an understanding of the "on" signals described in previous chapters, some understanding of the "off" signals. Only with such a complete understanding of the system is it possible to approach such questions as
CHAPTER 12 COMPLEMENT
In 1894 Pfeiffer discovered that cholera bacilli (Vibrio cholerae) were dissolved or lysed in vitro by the addition of guinea pig anticholera serum. Heating the serum at 56℃ for 30 minutes abolished this activity, but did not abolish the activity of antibodies against the bacilli, since the heated serum could still transfer immunity passively from one guinea pig to another. Pfeiffer discovered that the addition of normal, fresh serum to the heat-treated antiserum restored its lytic activity. From these experiments, he concluded that antibodies to the bacilli, plus a heat-labile component present in immune as well as normal serum, were necessary for the lysis of V. cholera in vitro.
CHAPTER 13 IMMUNOPROPHYLAXIS AND I MMUNOTHERAPY INTRODUCTION
Protection against infectious diseases by immunoprophylaxis (immunization) represents an immense, if not the greatest, accomplishment of biomedical science. One disease, smallpox, has been totally eliminated by the use of immunization, and the incidence of other diseases has been significantly reduced, at least in areas of the world where immunization can be practiced correctly.
CHAPTER 14 HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS
Under some circumstances, immunity, rather than providing protection, produces damaging and sometimes fatal results. Such deleterious reactions are known collectively as hypersensitivity or allergic reactions; antigens that commonly cause hypersensitivity or allergic reactions are referred to as allergens. It should be remembered that hypersensitivity reactions differ from protective immune reactions only in that they are exaggerated or inappropriate and damaging to the host. The
cellular and molecular mechanisms of the two types of reaction are virtually identical.
BASIC REQUIREMENTS OF TEACHING
English courseware will be used during the whole class teaching, and the couse content will be introduced and exlained by English. The stye of teaching includes instruction, asking questions, interpretation, extra-curricular work, examination, and so on. By those steps of teaching, students are required to master and understand the basic knowledge of immunology.This course lectures (including self-study and discussion) will ran away with 36 course hours. Assessment methods for examination is a comprehensive way, which includes the achievement of answer, disscusion, report, presentation, and the final examination.