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免疫学 课程教学大纲

发布时间:2017年03月16日 11:31 

免疫学 课程教学大纲

授课专业:生物技术、生物工程

学时数:36

学分数: 2

本门课程的教学目标和要求

免疫学是研究免疫器官、免疫细胞和免疫分子的结构及其免疫生物学功能的科学,是一门理论性和应用性很强的学科,已广泛应用到各个领域,是生命科学的一个重要组成部分。学生通过对免疫学课程的学习,掌握免疫系统(免疫器官、免疫细胞、免疫分子)的结构、功能,特别是免疫应答及其调节规律。

教学重点和难点

本门课程的教学重点为掌握免疫学功能,教学难点为理解免疫应答规律。

教学对象:生物技术专业、生物工程专业本科生

教学方式:课堂讲授

教学时数:36学时

课程教学内容

第一章 绪论 (2学时)

教学目标和要求:了解免疫学的基本概念,免疫学形成过程,以及当代免疫学的发展特点。

教学重点和难点:理解免疫学概念。

第一节 免疫学基本概念

第二节 免疫学形成过程

第三节 免疫学的发展特点

第二章 抗原(3学时)

教学目标和要求:掌握抗原的概念,决定免疫原性的因素,抗原的特 性,以及免疫佐剂等知识内容。

教学重点和难点:决定免疫原性的因素和抗原的特意性

第一节 抗原的基本概念及类别

第二节 抗原的分子基础

第三节 抗原的免疫特性

第三章 抗体 (4学时)

教学目标和要求: 掌握免疫球蛋白结构,生物学功能,基因结构和特点,以及抗体的应用

教学重点和难点:抗体产生的多样性,单克隆抗体制备原理

第一节 免疫球蛋白的结构与类别

第二节 免疫球蛋白基因

第三节 免疫球蛋白的合成与分泌

第四章  补体系统 (3学时)

教学目标和要求:掌握补体的激活途径,生物学功能以及补体的激活调控.

教学重点和难点:补体的激活途径

第一节 补体的组成及理化特性

第二节 补体的活化

第三节 补体的生物合成及生物学功能

第五章 免疫系统 (6学时)

教学目标和要求:掌握免疫系统的结构组成,以及各组成部分之间的相互关系.

教学重点和难点:各类免疫细胞特点和功能

第一部分 天然免疫系统

第一节 屏障结构

第二节 天然免疫细胞

第三节 天然免疫分子

第四节 天然免疫的生物学功能

第二部分 特异性免疫系统

第一节 特异性免疫器官的结构和功能

第二节 特异性免疫细胞的结构和功能

第三节 特异性免疫分子

第六章 主要组织相容性抗原系统(3学时)

教学目标和要求: 掌握主要组织相容性复合体的基因结构,分子功能,遗传特点

教学重点和难点: 主要组织相容性复合体的分子结构和功能

第一节 主要组织相容性复合物的结构与功能

第二节 主要组织相容性抗原基因结构及遗传

第七章 抗原抗体反应及应用(2学时)

第一节 抗体的制备

第二节 抗原抗体反应原理

第三节 常见免疫分析方法

第八章 免疫应答 (2学时)

教学目标和要求: 掌握免疫应答的规律,特点,类型及生物学意义

教学重点和难点: 免疫细胞活化机制

第一节 免疫应答的基本概念

第二节 免疫应答的基本过程

第三节 体液免疫应答

第四节 细胞免疫应答

第九章 免疫调节(2学时)

教学目标和要求: 掌握各种免疫调节因素及其机制

教学重点和难点: 细胞及分子调节机制

第一节 抗原抗体对免疫应答的调节

第二节 免疫细胞对免疫应答的调节

第三节 细胞因子与免疫调节

第四节 免疫耐受

第十章 感染免疫与疫苗 (3学时)

教学目标和要求: 掌握免疫学理论在免疫防治中的应用

教学重点和难点: 疫苗的研制和应用原理

第一节 免疫及其抗感染作用

第二节 免疫防治

第十一章 超敏反应 (3学时)

教学目标和要求: 掌握4种类型超敏反应的发生机制

教学难点和重点: 4种类型超敏反应的各自特点

第一节 Ⅰ型超敏反应

第二节 Ⅱ型超敏反应

第三节 Ⅲ型超敏反应

第四节 Ⅳ型超敏反应

第十二章 异常免疫反应(2学时)

第一节 自身免疫应答

第二节 移植免疫

第三节 肿瘤免疫

第四节 免疫缺陷

第十三章 免疫系统的进化(1学时)

 

SYLLABUS of IMMUNOLOGY

COURSE NAME:IMMUNOLOGY

COURSE CODE:070485

COURSE CLASSIFICATION:OPTIONAL COURSE

SPECIALTY:BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOENGINEERING

CLASS HOUR:36

CREDIT :2

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW

Immunology deals with understanding how the body distinguishes between what is "self" and what is "nonself"; all the rest is technical detail.

The nature of these primitive recognition mechanisms has not been completely worked out, but almost certainly involves cell surface molecules that are able to specifically bind and adhere to other molecules on opposing cell surfaces. This simple method of molecular recognition has evolved over time into the very complex system of the immune response, which, however, still retains as its essential feature the ability of a protein molecule to recognize and bind specifically to a particular shaped structure on another molecule. Such molecular recognition is the underlying principle involved in the discrimination between "self" and "nonself" by the immune response.

CHAPTER 2 ELEMENTS OF INNATE AND ACQUIRED IMMUNITY

Every living organism is confronted by continual intrusions from its environment. To survive, every organism has therefore had to develop defenses that render it resistant, or immune, to such assaults. These defenses range from physical barriers, such as a cell wall, to highly sophisticated systems, such as the acquired immune response. This chapter describes the defense systems: the elements that constitute the defense, the participating cells and organs, and the action of the participants in the immune response to foreign substances that invade the body.

CHAPER 3 IMMUNOGENS AND ANTIGENS

Acquired immune responses arise as a result of exposure to foreign stimuli. The compound that evokes the response is referred to either as "antigen" or as "immunogen." The distinction between these terms is functional. An immunogen is any agent capable of inducing an immune response. In contrast, an antigen is any agent capable of binding specifically to components of the immune response, such as lymphocytes and antibodies. The distinction between the terms is necessary because there are many compounds that are incapable of inducing an immune response, yet they are capable of binding with components of the immune system that have been induced specifically against them. Thus, all immunogens are antigens, but not all antigens need be immunogens. This difference becomes obvious in the case of low-molecular-weight compounds, a group of substances that includes many antibiotics and drugs.

CHAPTER 4 ANTIBODY STRUCTURE

One of the major functions of the immune system is the production of soluble proteins that circulate freely and exhibit properties that contribute specifically to immunity and protection against foreign material. These soluble proteins are the antibodies, which belong to the class of proteins called globulins because of their globular structure. Initially, owing to their migratory properties in an electrophoretic field, they were called γ-globulins (in relation to the more rapidly migrating albumin, α-globulin, and β-globulin); Today, they are known collectively as immunoglobulins (Ig).

CHAPTER 5 BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF IMMUNOGLOBULINS

Many important biological functions are attributed to antibodies. These include neutralization of toxins, immobilization of microorganisms, neutralization of viral activity, agglutination (clumping together) of microorganisms or of antigenic particles, binding with soluble antigen leading to the formation of precipitates (which are readily phagocytized and destroyed by phagocytic cells), and activating serum complement to facilitate the lysis of microorganisms or their phagocytosis and destruction either by phagocytic cells or by killer lymphocytes. Still another important biological function of antibodies is their ability to cross the placenta from the mother to the fetus. Not all antibody isotypes are equal in the performance of all of these biological tasks. it is well established that the differences in the various biological activities of the antibodies are attributed to their isotypic (class) structure.

CHAPTER 6 THE GENETIC BASIS OF ANTIBODY STRUCTURE

One characteristic of the immune response is its enormous diversity. Estimates of the number of B and T cells with different antigenic specificities in a given individual range from 106 to 108. If every immunoglobulin (Ig) or T-cell receptor (TcR) were coded for by one gene, then an individual would have to have this same number of genes (106-10) devoted exclusively to coding for these structures. Since such a large number of genes would occupy a significant percentage of the individual's genome (inherited DNA), it seemed hard to understand how all these genes could be fitted in. As a result of the work of several investigators over the last twenty years, however, we now know that genes coding for Ig and TcR use a unique strategy to achieve the degree of diversity required. This strategy uses a much more limited set of genes, numbering in the thousands rather than millions.

CHAPTER 7 ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY INTERACTIONS

Antibodies constitute the humoral arm of acquired immunity that provides protection against infectious organisms and their toxic products. Therefore, the interaction between antigen and antibody is of paramount importance. In addition, because of the exquisite specificity of the immune response, the interaction between antigen and antibody in vitro is widely used for diagnostic purposes, for the detection and identification of either antigen or antibody. The utilization of the in vitro reaction between antigen and serum antibodies is termed serology. An example of the use of serology for the identification and classification of antigens is the serotyping of various microorganisms by the use of specific antisera.

CHAPTER 8 BIOLOGY OF THE B LYMPHOCYTE

In previous chapters we described the structural and genetic mechanisms by which the immune response is able to achieve its diversity (i.e., its ability to respond to many different antigenic determinants, or epitopes). We now consider the development of the cells responsible for several major characteristics of the immune response, which are:

CHAPTER 9 BIOLOGY OF THE T LYMPHOCYTE

In the preceding chapters we have described how the specificity of the immune response is derived from the presence of millions of different lymphocytes, each with a slightly different-receptor able to interact with a particular antigenic epitope. Thus far, we have focused on one set of lymphocytes, the B lymphocytes and their receptor for antigen, immunoglobulin.

CHAPTER 10 ACTIVATION OF T AND B CELLS BY ANTIGEN

The interaction of antigen with antigen-specific receptors on T and B cells initiates a cascade of events that results in the proliferation and differentiation of both sets of cells. The intracellular events that follow activation of the antigen-specific receptor by antigen are very similar in both B and T cells following receptor triggering at the cell surface. As a result of antigenic stimulation, both B and T cells differentiate into effector cells, and a small fraction of both populations becomes memory cells.

CHAPTER 11 CONTROL MECHANISMS IN THE IMMUNE RESPONSE INTRODUCTION

An understanding of the immune response as a complete physiologic system requires, in addition to an understanding of the "on" signals described in previous chapters, some understanding of the "off" signals. Only with such a complete understanding of the system is it possible to approach such questions as

CHAPTER 12 COMPLEMENT

In 1894 Pfeiffer discovered that cholera bacilli (Vibrio cholerae) were dissolved or lysed in vitro by the addition of guinea pig anticholera serum. Heating the serum at 56℃ for 30 minutes abolished this activity, but did not abolish the activity of antibodies against the bacilli, since the heated serum could still transfer immunity passively from one guinea pig to another. Pfeiffer discovered that the addition of normal, fresh serum to the heat-treated antiserum restored its lytic activity. From these experiments, he concluded that antibodies to the bacilli, plus a heat-labile component present in immune as well as normal serum, were necessary for the lysis of V. cholera in vitro.

CHAPTER 13 IMMUNOPROPHYLAXIS AND I MMUNOTHERAPY INTRODUCTION

Protection against infectious diseases by immunoprophylaxis (immunization) represents an immense, if not the greatest, accomplishment of biomedical science. One disease, smallpox, has been totally eliminated by the use of immunization, and the incidence of other diseases has been significantly reduced, at least in areas of the world where immunization can be practiced correctly.

CHAPTER 14 HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS

Under some circumstances, immunity, rather than providing protection, produces damaging and sometimes fatal results. Such deleterious reactions are known collectively as hypersensitivity or allergic reactions; antigens that commonly cause hypersensitivity or allergic reactions are referred to as allergens. It should be remembered that hypersensitivity reactions differ from protective immune reactions only in that they are exaggerated or inappropriate and damaging to the host. The

cellular and molecular mechanisms of the two types of reaction are virtually identical.

BASIC REQUIREMENTS OF TEACHING

English courseware will be used during the whole class teaching, and the couse content will be introduced and exlained by English. The stye of teaching includes instruction, asking questions, interpretation, extra-curricular work, examination, and so on. By those steps of teaching, students are required to master and understand the basic knowledge of immunology.This course lectures (including self-study and discussion) will ran away with 36 course hours. Assessment methods for examination is a comprehensive way, which includes the achievement of answer, disscusion, report, presentation, and the final examination.

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